It is not so long ago that we know that Gaillac was occupied since the Gallo-Roman period, but its name appears in documents mentioning the foundation of the Benedictine abbey of Saint Michel in 819. Its prosperity declares itself with the cultivation of the vine by the monks. The wine trade but also pastel (isatis tinctoria) in the sixteenth century, transported on the river Tarn, will allow Gaillac to thrive and develop at the same time a maritime activity. The Cathar wars are much less responsible for the quarrels of power than the religious wars between Catholics and Protestants.
Today Gaillac owes its fame to its vineyard, characterized by three terroirs (terraces, slopes, plateau), a historical grape and a controlled appellation.
Finally Gaillac carries as emblem the cock that can be discovered on various pediments or capitals of old houses.