City of coronations, City of champagne? Reims is eager to unveil the legacy of its glorious history and immerse yourself in the worlds most prestigious and most famous festive wine.
Rich traditions and know-how secular Reims has also become a regional metropolis modern and dynamic thanks to its location at the crossroads of several trans-European routes, with its highly diversified economy and its center of excellence in teaching and research .
Four sites on the World Heritage List of UNESCO, the refined atmosphere of Champagne Houses, a city immersed in an atmosphere imbued with both the elegance of Art Deco facades and streets and relaxed cafes terraces lively program of events rich and varied natural environment where green is king? Reims opens its doors and welcomes you.
A two thousand year history ...
The ancient Reims: According to legend, was created by Reims Remus, the brother of the founder of ancient Rome. The Celtic people who lived in the region have thus taken the name of Remi. Around 80 BC, they established an oppidum they named Durocortero ( "Fortress Round"). After the Roman conquest, Durocortorum is incorporated into the province of Belgium and became the capital. At its peak, with its 30 000 inhabitants, the Gallo-Roman city became one of the more populated north of the Alps.
Around 260 is founded the bishopric of Reims. During the great invasions in 407, Bishop Nicaise is massacred by the Vandals in front of the church he had built. He became the patron saint of Reims.
The baptism of Clovis: The baptism of Clovis, king of the Franks, by Remi, bishop of Reims occurred on Christmas Day 498 in a baptistery whose site is now occupied by Notre Dame. The conversion of Clovis to Christianity, a religion of a church heir of Roman power, allowed him to legitimize its military grip on Gaul then divided.
It was after this baptism, which sealed the reconciliation of Church and State, born as the monarchy of divine right French. It is also thanks to him that Reims become the seat of kings of France.
The city of coronations: In 816 occurred the first Reims royal coronation, that of Louis the Pious. The ceremony, usually five hours long, took place in Notre Dame, since it was built. She continued by the coronation banquet at the Palais du Tau and a pilgrimage to the body of Bishop Remi, in the basilica dedicated to him. The coronation of the most memorable is that of the dauphin Charles VII, to Reims led by Joan of Arc July 17, 1429 after the siege of Orleans. A total of 33 sovereigns have been crowned at Reims, the latest being Charles X in 1825.
In the Middle Ages, Reims prospered by selling her sheets, linens and other textile fairs in the south of Champagne and trade with the Hanseatic League. The rise of champagne, from the reign of Louis XIV, came complete range of its productions.
Two of the most famous children in the city, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Comptroller General of the King, and Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, precursor of modern pedagogy, Reims born in the 17th century.
The modern Reims: As elsewhere, the industrial revolution overthrew the appearance of the city, which grew from 30 000 to 120 000 inhabitants in less than a century. Rich mansions replaced the houses with wood sides. Some of the first international airshows were held at Reims the early 20th century. Reims is indeed one of the cradles of aviation.
Then came the First World War. On September 4, 1914, a month after the start of hostilities, the German army entered Reims. It was quickly rejected, but she is entrenched in the forts around. Hence, the Wehrmacht bombard the city for 3 ½ years. The cathedral, very hard hit, receiving nearly 300 rounds. The seat will result in the destruction of 80% of the city and killed more than 5 000 people.
The new Reims, which rises from the rubble in the inter-war years through the intervention of 325 architectural firms, has a face full of eclectic in its architecture, marked in particular by the Art Deco style.
The Second World War affected the little town. During the conflict, welcomed the Reims Eisenhower's headquarters. There, May 7, 1945 at 2:41, General Alfred Jodl, commander of the Wehrmacht, signed the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. The text, drafted in haste by members of the staff of Eisenhower, was to halt the imminent conflict. It was ratified in Berlin the following day by the heads of allied states.
On July 7, 1962, German Chancellor Adenauer and General de Gaulle sealed at Notre Dame reconciliation between peoples and French and German Reims erected as a symbol of peace between Germany and France.